Thursday, 8 December 2016

Online Reviews Key Driver in Customer Purchase Decision


Image credits: Georgejmclittle
Traders across different spheres of the global economy confess to a love-hate relationship with online reviews, but according to Invesp, a marketing retail and analytics firm, 90% of consumers read online reviews before placing an order or making a purchase. The survey, carried out to establish shopping trends and habits of customers online also indicates that  88% of these buyers trust online reviews as much as they do personal recommendations.

When it comes to trust, the spenders tend to put their faith in institutions and businesses that have at least attained excellent rating from past users, while 32% will only trust brands that have been reviewed positively. For both instances, it’s not difficult to see how humans are capable of relating to others’ experiences, and even use them to forecast their own.

Customer reviews, more or less reflects a true picture of any given business as Estelle Verdier - Managing Director,  Jumia explains.

“Unless where suspicions of malice, hostility or rivalry are present, businesses should be able to learn, respond, recover and restructure where need be, so as to give better services to their customers.” Verdier,

whose company has launched a “Customer Selection” exclusive list of hotels argues that, the hospitality sector especially cannot ignore the impact and role of online reviews, since vacationers and visitors do not only want to buy a good bed, but rather come looking for great service, insightful engagement and interaction with the staff members as well as promised environment to befit the purpose of their stay.
Jumia Travel Selection.jpgJumia Travel MD - Estelle Verdier hands “Customer Selection” Certificate to a representative of Milele Beach Complex - Mombasa

Her sentiments are well reiterated by the findings of Invesp; which places reliability (27%), expertise (21%), and professionalism (18%) as the main determinants influencing customer review. An excerpt of the survey cites that 86% of customers will refuse to purchase from a business with negative reviews, while indicating that one negative review can cost a business 30 potential customers.

Dealing with negative reviews

Eduard Meyjes, Head of Revenue Management at Jumia Travel explains that the company’s “Jumia Customer Selection” list only contains about 350 hotels of the properties on the site.

“Our NPS (Net Promoter Score) score is fairy high at 7.0 and above, but we believe, there is no excuse to attaining excellence, we ensure that hotels have ready access to the reviews coming from their customers - therefore act as guideline on what needs to be done, and what the customer is looking for. Rapid response, and offering restitution where possible is vital where negative feedback is involved.”

Khalid Saleh, co-founder of Invesp cites admission, correction and consistency on the side of the business as a sure path to recovery after unfavorable comments are made against your services, products and the business image at large. “Also, be keen to shed off the corporate tone and approach your dissatisfied customer at a personal level as you try to recover their faith in your business gain.” Once all this is done, learn how review sites work, familiarise yourself with various tools in the market, and make it your duty to invite and remind  loyal customers to review your products, as this will go a long way in acquiring new conversions!"

By Lillian Gaitho
Jumia Travel.

Saturday, 26 November 2016

We have the onus to developing our society through mutual participation

John Locke the world’s renowned scholar in his theory perceives man as a good creature who dwells on positive achievements.

On the other hand, his counterpart scholar, Thomas Hobbes build his contradiction on Locke’s theory hence considers man as an evil creature who live on destruction.

It goes without citing that life is what one makes. Life can either be miserable or successful depending on the skills, knowledge and determination one has to handling the situation that is before him or her. You can either choose to blend life with beautiful flowers or decide to belt it with dangerous thorns.

The scripture however denounces the lukewarm trait by citing that one should be either hot or cold-good or evil, Period.

Going down my memory lane, I can recall the narrations of educative wisdom my grand mum used to instill in me when I was a little boy, during evening around fire stories known as in African language as bed time narratives. “Be good my grandson, being good to people never cost anything.” This was the moral advice from most of her stories anyway.

To be good one need to be respective, kind, caring…-start building the muscles of the required traits that would make others around him/her see his/her clear image right from the beginning. Besides, one must show good character build on actions that can inspire other people surrounding him/her.

Self-discipline with transparency, trust and accountability…is among the key traits that make up best person who should be emulated by the rest of the members of the society.

The yield of all desirable traits is amazing in the sense that one is indeed honored. The world Nobel laureates such as Desmond Tutu, Nelson Mandela, Wangari Maathai, the US President Barrack Obama among other icons have so far led the talk and their wonderful achievements speaks for themselves-are beyond reasonable doubt.

The society can only achieve best results when people occupying it play active role-co-exist in peace and harmony on the coordination platform. The society can be classified as amazing when there is mutual participation and involvement of all stake holders in endeavor to building it. And the result of good achievements will be felt from sides to the center and through economic growth.

For all these to be successful therefore, there must be secure environment. For instance, there must be willing businessmen to invest and thrive; infrastructure such as roads, communication facilities, schools, hospitals just to mention but few should be given a key priority.

Farmers should be given incentives; subsidized farm inputs to enable them grow and harvest quality produce thus fight hunger and poverty. The society can be called rotten or a spoiled lot when the occupants break the foundation of moral values where their destiny rest. For instance it can lose its glory when there is poor management of the environment whose better results are felt in terms of global warming today.

The society we are living in today tends to get worse and worse each passing time due to manipulations of characters of its occupants.

We have failed to unmask evils committed by the few at the expense of majority of innocents. Failure to condemn what we actually see as wrong has led to jam packing of challenges where many of which have reached maturity stage, to uproot or shove them from our footpaths it requires bulldozers.

As a matter of fact, vices such as corruption in Kenya today are at the peak because of lack of willing men and women with confidence to fight it. Current surveys show Kenya is among the leading countries that are lagging behind because of rampant corruption that are existing in various sectors of economy.

It is high time we stood firmly just like the renowned scholars such as Karl Max, Max Weber, Abraham Lincoln…and condemned what is evil with the major aim of ushering in what we believe is in the context and interest of the masses.

We must learn the importance of expanding our vision by possessing grotesque characters and images since good images and characters will always give birth to other colorful images that would be embraced by many. As a matter fact, we feel good and honored when we are associated with good characters whose images impress.

In a nut shell, people should always invest in doing what is right at all cost since good images will always make great difference not only in ones life but on other people’s lives around.

Challenges we are facing today from bad governance to domestic feuds do emerge as a result of lack clear road map that would guide us on how we should coexist and handle various matters in the society whenever they sprout.

We are overwhelmed with myopic characters that are hindering the nation from realizing her dreams. Yes, it has become hard to get ourselves out of the bandwagon of challenges and register our colorful name on the global map just like other developed worlds due to lack of political will. And this is where the rubber meets the road.

Had we had a situation where the majorities in the diverse society are guided by their inner principles and focused minds, perhaps global challenges that are killing us slowly such as poverty, hunger, diseases, and corrupt deals among others would have been strangled and thrown into oblivion.

Had we learnt the secret of condemning what is wrong and learnt the importance of praising embracing what is right, problems in our society would have been lessened significantly.

Our ultimate choice therefore should be guided by our inner voice and brave hearts whose aim is to lay a strong cornerstone in our society’s foundation for the sake of living better lives. It must start from you.

Thursday, 17 November 2016

Men are Heroes Not Cowards When Involved In family Planning

Tanzanian couple receiving family planning counselling (Photo credit: Sala Lewis)
A new Pew Research Center survey released on Wednesday shows that Kenyans prioritise education and healthcare for improving the economy.
“33% say education is the most important. Two-in-ten choose health care and another 20% mention government effectiveness, such as reducing corruption. A similar percentage picks agriculture and the supply of food (19%). Just 6% say infrastructure and 2% prioritize the supply of energy,” figures from the survey conducted in South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya among 3,330 respondents from March 29 to July 9, 2016 states.
According to the survey, one, health care is a higher priority for women (26%) than it is for men (15%).
Two, a broad majority of Kenyans (81%) think education will be better when today’s children grow up, including 52% who say it will be much better. Similarly, 76% believe health care will have improved when the younger generation comes of age, with 40% saying it will be much better.
The last census undertaken in Kenya (in 2006) placed the population at 36.1 million.

In 2008 the population of Kenya was estimated at 38 million by the United Nations Population Fund.
The UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs mid 2015 results noted that Kenya’s population is expected to hit 81.4 million by 2050 in comparison to the Kenya Demographics Profile 2011 that projected the population to stand at 51.3 million in 2025 and 65 million in 2050.  
The increase in population, currently 44.3 million, is attributed to a high fertility rate.
According to the UN report, a Kenyan woman gives birth to an average of four children, a number higher than the global average of 2.5.
Kenya is faced with a myriad of problems, trying to feed its people, provide employment to its youth, quality and affordable education and health care.

Consequently, it is not a national issue to Kenya alone, but a global one, that poses a challenge from a growing population and its impact on health care, food security, jobs, and poverty.

To address these global issues, it needs concerted efforts from all nations on how to think of population control. Global consensus and cooperation is needed to achieve this.  

Cristian Baeza, the former World Bank's Director for Health, Nutrition, and Population, Human Development Network said, "Failure to address high fertility with large and growing population cohorts results in unsustainable health care and schooling costs and lags in economic growth, and may increase the risk of social and political unrest. But, addressing high fertility is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition to harness the demographic dividend."
Ten years ago, the Government committed itself to ensure that Millennium Development Goal number five was realised by 2015. The goal states: Achieving good maternal health requires quality reproductive health services and well-timed interventions to ensure a woman’s safe passage to motherhood.
Currently, the government has committed itself to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)which call for countries to improve across 17 issue areas, including economic growth, accountable institutions and reduced inequality, among others.
It is not a surprise that healthcare is a priority for women. That women need access to health care for themselves and their children, in particular family planning, that is now widely accepted every day.
On June 1, 2013, the Government of Kenya took action to address this problem by initiating a policy of free maternity services in all public facilities, effective immediately.
The 2016/17 Fiscal Year, the government has set aside Sh4 billion to provide health insurance through the National Health Insurance Fund to pregnant women from low-income and under-privileged backgrounds.
Additionally, Kenya’s First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has initiated the “Beyond Zero Campaign” to improve maternal and child health outcomes as part of the initiatives outlined in the Strategic Framework in HIV control and promotion of maternal, newborn and child health in Kenya that was unveiled on World AIDS Day 2013.
Even this is not enough.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 2016 report on Universal Access to Reproductive Health Progress and Challenges states that, Reproductive health is critical to advancing development.” This is in terms of  of access to rights-based family planning, is now well recognized in not only improving women’s chances of surviving pregnancy and childbirth, but also in contributing to gender equality, better child health, preventing and responding to HIV transmission, better education outcomes and poverty reduction.
A key pointer of the report is that, “Universal access to reproductive health affects and is affected by many aspects of life. It involves individuals’ most intimate relationships, including negotiation and decision-making within sexual relationships, and interactions with health providers regarding contraceptive methods and options.”
However, it should be noted that, If women are going to use contraception successfully, they must be able to make their own decisions about it.Women are willing to make partnerships to make progress.
It is a fact that family planning is central to gender equality and women’s empowerment, and it is a key factor in reducing poverty. And men, too, should be enlisted in the battle to safeguard maternal health.
Nafis Sadik, Former Executive Director of United Nations Population Fund says, “Somehow men must learn that equal power for women does not threaten their own power: that being a man does not depend on controlling a woman; that sharing power makes everyone more powerful.”
Dr. Doug Stein and Jonathan Stack, Co Founder World Vasectomy Day addressing journalists in Nairobi.

This is a reason why Kenya will be hosting the 4th year of the World Vasectomy Day (WVD) in Nairobi.
Jonathan Stack, Co Founder World Vasectomy Day 2016 says,
“In May 2012, I set an intention; convince 100 doctors in 10 countries to do 1000 vasectomies in 24 hours.  And here it is, 2016, and we are about to celebrate the 4th year of WVD right here in Kenya.  The obstacles are plenty. For one people assume that men will not step up. I believe they’d just never been told the right story; one in which we become heroes to our family, to our wives, to our country and to our future.”
Stack says  the decision for men to choose a permanent form of birth control is profoundly personal, and yet the impact of this personal decision has communal, national, and global ramifications.
He adds that Kenya, like many countries, faces challenges of cultural, religious and economic differences, but WVD promotes unity, finding shared purpose in country and across borders. Men may be resistant to getting a vasectomy, but we are united in our hopes that the lives of our children be as good or better than our own. “Indeed, women must not, and cannot do this alone.”
Vasectomy is the medical name for male sterilisation. A simple surgical procedure which closes off the small sperm carrying tubes (vas deferens) in the scrotum. This means produced cannot get into the seman and fertilise a female egg. Vasectomy does not affect one’s sexual pleasure or ability to ejaculate.
And why education as a priority; literacy for women benefits families in a number of ways. It increases her health (a literate woman can read material about health and hygiene practices) and the health of her children, it increases her family's security (if her husband dies, she can get a better job), it increases her desire to see her children receive education and it increases her political power - she can read and understand national issues and participate in them.

Wednesday, 2 November 2016

The spirited fight must go on in fighting FGM

Pokot Women in Kenya in a past ceremony

This year, the African Union joined the global community to observe the “International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital”.

The day was adopted on 20 December 2012 by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to enhance campaigns to raise awareness and educate people about the dangers of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) as well as to take concrete actions against Female Genital Mutilation.”

The AU has adopted legally binding instruments that promote the prohibition of traditional practices that are prejudicial to the health and welfare of young girls and women. Among others, Article 21 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child obliges States Parties to eliminate harmful social and cultural practices, such as FGM, that affect the welfare, dignity, normal growth and development of the child.

In addition, Article 5 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ ‘Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) requires States Parties to prohibit and condemn all forms of harmful practices, such as FGM, which negatively affect the human rights of women and to take all necessary legislative and other measures to eliminate such practices.

However, all these developments reminds me when the world marked the eighth anniversary of an Africa-led campaign against female genital mutilation (traditional practice which involves the partial or total removal of female genitalia, undergone by more than 100 million girls and women worldwide), the fight against FGM is yet to ripen in areas that still practice the culture.

This was a day that rekindled the story on two young sisters who had taken refuge in a forest for three days with neither food nor water in Marakwet West District to escape forced circumcision as well as early planned marriages.

The two school girls aged 14 and 16 had fled their home after they learned that they were to be circumcised the following day. Arrangements had already been made for the material day with friends and relatives having been invited to witness their ‘graduation from childhood into womanhood’’

Their mother had reportedly prepared them for the rite and to curse them if they dared to let her down. When she learned of their plans to escape, she called up on other women to help her lock the innocent girls in a house to prevent them but, the girls managed to escape through the window.

They were found by a vegetable vendor in the middle of Kamotony forest in Marakwet West District shivering and conversing in low tones.

In a twist of events, most painful, the two girls had informed the Provincial Administration who did not take any action.

Two months had passed after over thirty school girls were rescued from undergoing FGM as well as planned marriages in Pokot County.

Despite the fact that the government has been taking stern measures in an effort to eradicate the practice, more than three hundred and fifty girls had already been circumcised in Marakwet as many  lined up to face the knife in Tot and Tunyo divisions of Marakwet East.

In spite of the 2001 Children's Act in Kenya outlawing FGM, it was performed in medical facilities across these districts. As a result only a handful of cases have reached the courts in recent years.

Subsequently, the 2010 UNDP report on Human Development Index (HDI) ranked Kenya number 87 and disclosed that, gender equity reflects women's disadvantage in three dimensions reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market indicating women are poorer because the report went beyond income earnings focusing on the ends rather than the means of development and progress.

2016, Kenya has been ranked 18 in Africa and 145 in the 2016 report of HDI. “A key message of this report is that giving more concerted attention to gender equality will be an important and long overdue stimulus to faster and more inclusive human development and economic growth for the entire continent,” according to Helen Clark, Administrator, United Nations Development Programme.

Girls who refuse to cooperate with their parents are usually disowned and chased out of their homes. Some fathers have refused to pay school fees for their daughters who have refused to undergo circumcision.

Zero tolerance for FGM can become a reality only if all appropriate sectors of government and civil society prioritise the protection of women and girls from FGM and coordinate their efforts in a proactive, sustained and planned manner.

Much has been done but more efforts have to be done, not by the government but the communities at large. Communities that still value such practices need to look for alternative rites of passage and do away with grueling ordeals that leave the girls with permanent health problems that they live with throughout their lifetime.

On the other hand, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) says in a new report that community-focused initiatives are proving effective in reducing the incidence of female genital cutting in Kenya

Efforts that address cultural and social dimensions of the practice have yielded better results than have blanket condemnations or appeals aimed at individuals, UNICEF finds.


Law enforcement must employ creative strategies such as undercover investigations of medical facilities which provide FGM and temporarily increase the concentration of police forces in high-risk areas.

Further, the government must allocate additional resources to increase transportation for law enforcement, raise awareness among girls, make ample shelter arrangements for girls fleeing FGM, use community radio and local media to warn practising communities that FGM will not be tolerated, publicise arrests and prosecutions and equip courts to handle cases efficiently.

This is an abridged version of the original story written in 2011-02-06.

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

Kenyans Call on Safaricom CEO to Promote its Staff for Exemplary Service

In 1992, the US Congress proclaimed Customer Service Week as a nationally recognised event, celebrated annually during the first full week in October.

Since then, thousands of companies across the United States and around the world celebrate Customer Service Week between October 3 - 7, underlining the importance customers and people, who serve and support customers on a daily basis.

Customer Service Week provides a unique opportunity for service and support professionals around the globe to join in a celebration of the important role that customer service plays in every organization.

In Kenya, days after many companies took to social media to show how they were marking the week, today Kenyans took to the same platform requesting Safaricom’s Chief Executive Officer, Bob Collymore to promote one of his staff.

According to Kenyans on Twitter (KOT) the lady by the name Pauline deserved better as she had exemplified what customer service was.

The five core goals of Customer Service Week are:

Boost morale, motivation and teamwork.
Reward frontline reps for the important work they do all year long.
Raise companywide awareness of the importance of customer service.
Thank other departments for their support.
Remind customers of your commitment to customer satisfaction.

Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Increasing local production through improved quality seeds

Climate change, inadequate public investment and inadequate support to smallholder farmers are the triple challenges facing Africa’s food production according to Dr. Agnes Kalibata, President, Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).

Further, rapid population growth and urbanization present the most daunting challenge to meeting the goal of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty in Sub Saharan Africa.

“Global food demand in 2050 is projected to increase by at least 60 percent above 2006 levels, driven by population and income growth, as well as rapid urbanization. In the coming decades, population increases will be concentrated in regions with the highest prevalence of undernourishment and high vulnerability to the impacts of climate change,” according to a new report from the United Nations.

The image of Kenya children in the arid and semi arid regions starving and dying from hunger and malnutrition is certainly emotive and swiftly moves the nation and international community to compassionate action.

Currently, close to 1.3 millions Kenyans are affected by the drought situation in the country according to the Devolution Cabinet Secretary Mwangi Kiunjuri.

Kilifi is the worst-hit county among the 23 counties affected by the drought. Other affected counties include Tana River, Kwale, West Pokot, Tharaka-Nithi, and all the counties in northeastern region.

The Famine Early Warning System Network,  (FEWSN) report states that deterioration of food security is expected to continue even after onset of the short rains.

“In northeastern pastoral areas, especially parts of Garissa and Tana River, rangeland conditions and livestock productivity are atypically poor, even for the dry season, since these areas experienced substantial rainfall deficits of 25 to 50 percent of normal during the last long rains.

As a result, poor households with substantial pasture, browse, and water deficits, and depleted incomes inhibiting effective market access are experiencing food gaps and moved to Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity in September. These households are likely to remain in Crisis (IPC Phase 3) acute food insecurity through at least January 2017.”

Read: Kenya: Drought Resilience: Special drought response edition - October 2016

Given the excruciating spectacle of death and hunger, it is easy to argue that low input, low productivity rain-fed small farm agricultural production systems are the culprit and must be replaced with production systems that utilize fertilizers, high yielding hybrid seeds, pesticides and irrigation.

“The challenge in Kenya and Africa is its diversity - different crops grow in different environments, from the highlands to the lowlands,” says Joe Devries, Chief, Agricultural Transformation, AGRA.

“70 million farmers are in these zones and everyone needs high yielding seeds to allow them to produce adequate levels and surplus that is drought tolerant, adaptable to climate change and has early maturity,” he adds.

“The base of everything else is good seed. The challenge is the disconnect between researchers and getting the seeds out to the farmers because it is the heart of agriculture transformation,” says Kalibata.

According to the experts, only an average of about 20 percent of farmers in Africa use seeds of improved varieties. The numbers are lower among smallholder farmers who account to 70 percent of the continent’s population.

Kenya has a more advanced seed sector in the region with about 60 percent of farmers using improved seeds according to Eng. J.A Nkanya, Chief Engineer Agricultural Engineering Service.

“The government in partnership with our development partners has funded the research and development of locally adapted, high yielding varieties and is willing to share this key technologies with private seed companies to ensure that we meet the seed demand in the country and indeed the continent.”

The stakeholders were speaking at the sidelines of the ‘10k Seed Club’ bringing together seed companies in Africa organised by the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) in Nairobi to review the progress and learn from each other on the best approaches towards the intended mark in Nairobi.

Over the years, these companies have produced and sold an estimated 475,805 MT of improved seeds.on average, the use of improved seeds and the right farming practices have enabled farmers to more than double their yields, leading to the production of an additional 4 million MT of cereals, pulses, soybeans and groundnuts in 2015 alone representing about 2.2 billion US dollars in additional income for the farmers.

According to Kalibata, Africa was witnessing an agricultural transformation with countries that made the biggest investments in smallholder agriculture rewarded with sizeable jumps in both farm productivity and overall economic performance.

“Seeds of improved varieties are important in raising yields and ensuring food security, proper nutrition and prosperity for not only smallholder farmers but the general population,” she said. “Local private seed companies are a critical player in delivering a truly African green revolution. These companies should diversify the seeds they produce from maize to include other crops that can play a role in food security and climate change adaptation like sorghum, millet and legumes such as cowpeas, pigeon peas and green grams. The companies are also best placed to innovatively produce seeds and planting materials for crops that are vegetatively propagated like sweet potatoes and cassava,” added Kalibata.

has already begun to affect the world’s food production, anew report from the United Nations warns — and unless significant action is taken, it could put millions more people at risk of hunger and poverty in the next few decades.  

Dr. Eliud Kiplimo Kireger, Director General Kenya Agricultural & Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) however, says coming up with quality seeds that suits the market requirements and the environmental challenges is ‘an expensive process’.

“We are not deliver because of inadequate funding from the government. Research cannot stop, the demands keep emerging,” he says.

On the other hand, Kalibata says Africa still has a huge import bill that can be overcome if we doubled the production of maize, but we are still ‘talking about food security’.

“The Current import bill is at 35 billion dollars and it is estimated to be at 110 billion dollars by 2025.”

Subsequently, the  2014 Africa Progress Report notes that, “African countries spent US$35 billion on food imports (excluding fish) in 2011. The share accounted for by intra-African trade: less than 5 per cent. If Africa’s farmers increased their productivity and substituted these imports with their own produce, this would provide a powerful impetus to reducing poverty, enhancing food and nutrition security, and supporting a more inclusive pattern of growth.”

The newly released UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s annual State of Food and Agriculture report, ‘The State of Food and Agriculture - Climate change agriculture and food security’,  focusing on social protection and anti-poverty measures, innovation in family farming and designing food systems for better nutrition cites that climate change has already begun to affect the world’s food production, and unless significant action is taken, it could put millions more people at risk of hunger and poverty in the next few decades.

“Hunger, poverty and climate change need to be tackled together,” said Food and Agriculture Organization director-general José Graziano da Silva, in a foreword to the new report. “This is, not least, a moral imperative as those who are now suffering most have contributed least to the changing climate.”

Some years back, the US Secretary of State Hillary  Clinton at the Clinton Global Initiative Closing Plenary said, “Food security is not just about food, it is all about security – economic security, environmental security, even national security.”

“If we can build partnerships with countries to help small farmers improve their agricultural output and make it easier to buy and sell their products at local or regional markets, we can set off a domino effect,” Clinton explained. “We can increase the world’s food supply for both the short and the long term; diminish hunger; raise farmers’ incomes; improve health; expand opportunity; and strengthen regional economies.”

There is need to bring the knowledge and perspectives of farmers together with decision-makers at other levels. It is crucial that research in agriculture, food security and climate change continues to improve and deliver, to allow more confident decision-making and allocation of limited resources towards uncertain climatic futures this is according to a Policy Brief from the International Research Institute (IRI) Climate and Society No.1.

Going forward, José Graziano da Silva in the report says, “The time to invest in agriculture and rural development is now. The challenge is garnering diverse financing sources, aligning their objectives to the extent possible, and creating the right policy and institutional environments to bring about the transformational change needed to eradicate poverty, adapt to climate change and contribute to limiting greenhouse gas emissions.”